(Excerpts from goturkey.com)

Official Name
Republic of Turkey
Date of Foundation
October 29, 1923
Capital                                             
Ankara
Largest Cities
Istanbul, Ankara, Izmir, Adana, Antalya
Area                             
814.578 km2
Geographical Coordinates
Eastern Meridians 26° and 45° and Northern Parallels 36° and 42°
Coastal Borders
Mediterranean Sea in the south, Aegean Sea in the west and Black Sea in the north
Language                  
The official language is Turkish. English is widely spoken in major cities.
Currency                  
TL (Turkish Lira) 1 Euro approximately equals to 2, 30 Turkish Liras.
Time Zone
GMT+2; CET +1; and EST (US -East) +7
Business Hours  
The workweek in Turkey runs from Monday to Friday. Banks, government offices and majority of  corporate offices open at 9 AM and close at 5 PM.
Public Holidays
There are two types of public holiday in Turkey: Those fall on the same day each year; and the religious festivals which change according to the lunar calendar and, therefore, fall on different dates each year.
1 January, 23 April, 1 May, 19 May, 30 August, 28 & 29 October
Eid (Ramadan): 8-11 September 2010 
Eid (Fitr-Kurban): 15-19 November 2010
Visas
Visas are easily obtained upon arrival to the air­port and are required for citizens of most countries.
Electricity
220V. European standard round two-pin sockets.
Health Services
Cities and major touristic towns have a selection of private inter­national and public hospitals with good standards.
Food
As with many Mediterranean nations Turkish food is very healthy, fresh and enjoyable.
Water
Tap water is chlorinated and, therefore, safe to drink. However, it is recommended that you consume bottled water, which is readily and cheaply available.
Communications
Turkey has three GSM operators, with all of them offering 3G services and almost over 95% coverage over the country. Internet service is available all around the country.
International Dial Code
+90